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History
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Tag: History Ordering

Why I Love Teaching Church History on the Mission Field

Why I Love Teaching Church History on the Mission Field
  As I have been visiting churches during our home assignment (furlough), I am occasionally asked why I teach church history in Thailand.  “Do they really need to learn church history?  Don’t they need the Bible more?”  The answer to both questions is , "They do."  The top priority in discipleship should be teaching the Old and New Testament, helping people to know and love their Bibles as a natural outgrowth of knowing and loving their Savior.  But in a full-orbed approach to discipleship, Christians need to know some history too… even on mission fields where Christians are few and far between.   As the church grows, it needs leaders who know the past in order to chart a better future.  I teach church history and missions at Bangkok Bible Seminary, a ministry training school that aims to prepare leaders for the churches in Thailand.  I love teaching there. I love helping form an upcoming generation of Thai Christian leaders.  I see students benefitting from the classes I teach and feel like I am making a real contribution.  I love seeing the lights go on in students' minds as they get their questions answered and get a better biblical grounding under their feet to minister to the people in their churches and to do outreach.  I love to read student reflections on the stories of Hudson Taylor and John Sung and the lessons they have learned from their lives.  I love to see students grasp the implications of the doctrinal debates of the early church and to discuss with them the mixed fruit arising from the legalization of Christianity under Constantine.  Did you know that the altar call is only about 200 years old?  Most of my students don’t know that coming in to my class and discussing the history of evangelistic methods gives them ideas about what they might (or might not) want to do in their own evangelism.  I love questions like...   “My friend said that if you worship on Sunday it is a compromise with paganism. Is that true?  I wanted to ask you since we're studying the section on the Roman Empire now”   “Teacher, can I get a PDF of Jonathan Edwards' sermon in Thai and English that you had us read for class. I had the opportunity to read it again. Its really good. I felt like I had to repent of a lot of things."   Learning church history provides my students with a multitude of benefits for their personal walk with Christ and their ministry to others.  For example, 

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Latin and a Queen Esther Moment in Korean Church History (Nov. 16, 1900)

Latin and a Queen Esther Moment in Korean Church History (Nov. 16, 1900)

I have been studying Latin with my kids for the past several months and it has been a lot of fun.  However, some people might wonder how useful it is.  With that doubt in mind, I wanted to share an incredible story that a Korean friend recently brought to my attention.  For who knows if your study of Latin might come in handy for such a time as this...

 

"To sum it up..., several high court officials made a plot to kill ALL missionaries and Christians in Korea (their plan was to go in effect on Dec. 1st, 1900). Missionary Horace G. Underwood got a hold of their scheme before it became official and sent a telegram in LATIN (so that no Korean would understand the content) to fellow missionary Avison to alert him of the seriousness of the situation.

Avison then relayed the information to missionary Allen--who was/had been King GoJong's personal physician at the court. Allen immediately sought after the King's attendance; which resulted in King GoJong making a decree throughout the land ordering all plots against Christians to stop.

Literally, thousands of lives were saved with the help of a Latin message sent that day."

 

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ซานตาคลอสตัวจริงคือใคร? (Who Is The Real Santa Claus?)

ซานตาคลอสตัวจริงคือใคร? (Who Is The Real Santa Claus?)

เมื่อพูดถึงเทศกาลคริสต์มาส คนจำนวนมากคงจะคิดถึง “ซานตาคลอส” ชายอ้วนอารมณ์ดี มีหนวดขาว ใส่ชุดสีแดง ขับเลื่อนเทียม กวางเรนเดียร์ 8 ตัว เหาะเหินลงมาจากท้องฟ้าในคืนวันคริสต์มาสเพื่อมาแจกของขวัญ เรื่องของซานตาคลอสนั้นเป็นตำนานของฝรั่งจากซีกโลกตะวันตก แต่บางคนอาจไม่รู้ว่าตำนานเรื่องนี้มีที่มาจากชีวิตจริง และนาม “ซานตาคลอส” นั้นมีที่มาจากชื่อนักบุญ “เซนต์นิโคลาส”

 

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ทำไมคริสต์มาสถูกฉลองเป็นวันที่ 25 ธันวาคม?

ทำไมคริสต์มาสถูกฉลองเป็นวันที่ 25 ธันวาคม?

นักประวัติศาสตร์รู้ว่าพระเยซูคริสตน่าจะเกิดในประมาญปี ค.ศ. 0 หรือก่อนปีนั้นหนิดหนึ่ง  แต่ไม่มีใครรู้ว่าพระเยซูคริสตทรงบังเกิดวันไหนแน่ แม้ว่าคริสเตียนและคริสตังฉลองวันเกิดของพระเยซูเป็นวันที่ 25 ธันวาคมก็ตาม วันที่ 25 นั้นคงไม่ไช่วันเกิดจริงของพระเยซู  

ถ้าเป็นอย่างนั้น ทำไมคริสต์มาสถูกฉลองเป็นวันที่ 25 ธันวาคม?  คริสตจักรยุคแรกไม่มีวันพิเศษสำหรับการฉลองการประสูติของพระเยซู แต่วันเทศกาลคริสต์มาสได้เริ่มมีการฉลองในศตวรรษ์ที่ 4 ของคริสต์ศักราช  เทศกาลคริสตสมภพ (คริสต์มาส) มีบันทึกเรื่องพิธีนี้เป็นครั้งแรกในปี คศ.336  และถือเอาวันที่ 25 ธ.ค.เป็นวันฉลองทั้งนี้คงเป็นเพราะวันนี้เป็นวันที่พวกลัทธิต่างชาตินับถือเป็นวันเกิดของพระสุริยายุทธเทพ  ผู้เป็นพระเจ้าของเขา  บางทีพวกคริสตชนอาจจะถือโอกาสคัดค้านพวกลัทธิต่างชาติ  โดยเลือกเอาวันนี้เป็นวันเฉลิมฉลองพระคริสต์  ผู้ทรงเปรียบเหมือนสุริยเทพแห่งความชอบธรรมก็ได้ ตั้งแต่สมัยนั้นชาวคริสต์ทั่วโลกได้ถือวันที่ 25 ธันวาคมของทุกปีเป็นวันเทศกาลคริสต์มาสเพื่อฉลองการประสูติของพระเยซูคริสตเจ้า

Instructions for New Missionaries to Thailand (1846)

Instructions for New Missionaries to Thailand (1846)

The letter replicated below is the first letter of the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Mission to its out-going missionaries to Siam in 1846.  One other missionary from the American Presbyertian Mission had gone to Siam (now Thailland) previously, but he returned to the United States after only a few years because of his wife's health.  

It is interesting to note the priorities of the sending church (and its denominational agency) more than 150 years ago, and to compare those priorities to those of missionaries today.  Language study was prioritized, as was evangelism, although medical and publishing work were seen as useful primarily as a means to the evangelistic work.   While the world has changed greatly in 150 years, this letter reminds me of how much has basically stayed the same in the work of missions and evangelism over the years.

A print copy of this letter may be found in "Historical Sketch of Protestant Missions in Siam 1828-1928"Historical Sketch of Protestant Missions in Siam 1828-1928", edited by G.B. McFarland.

 

Mission House, New York, 10th July 1846 

Rev. S. Mattoon 

Dr. S. R. House, M. D 

 

Dear Brethren,

In going out to resume the Mission in Siam, it is proper that you take with you the instructions of the Executive Committee in reference to that field of Missionary labor.

When you are permitted to enter upon your work, we shall be glad to hear from you once a month or as near these periods as you have an opportunity of sending. Letters by way of Canton will come with those of the brethren to China. Thin paper must be used for one letter a month via Canton overland. Other letters with your Journals, annual reports etc., sent by way of Canton will your reach us by ships from China.

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Operation Auca (January 8, 1956) – Sixty Years Later

Operation Auca (January 8, 1956) – Sixty Years Later

guest post by Larry Dinkins

This week, 60 years ago, five missionaries made contact with the Auca (literally “savage”) tribal group in the Ecuadorian jungle. Previously, no one had ever engaged this tribe without being killed. The previous year, gifts had been exchanged paving the way for this encounter. On January 3rd, the five married men, Jim Elliot, Roger Youderian, Peter Fleming, Nate Saint (oldest at 32), and Ed McCully established a camp at “Palm Beach” along the Curaray River and waited. On January 6, two naked women and a man emerged from the jungle and made friendly contact, even agreeing to take a ride in the yellow Piper. By January 8, the anxious wives got word that all five of the missionaries had been slaughtered on that lonely beach. The coverage of the event by Life Magazine and its photo essay broadcast the news around the world culminating in what has become one of the most inspirational missionary stories of the 20th century. 

Two years later,  Rachel Saint (Nate’s sister) and Elisabeth Elliot with her 3-year-old daughter went to live among the Auca for a period of three years. Eventually most of the village, including six in the murder party, turned to Christ.  Elisabeth returned to the states as a writer and speaker, producing a total of 28 books over the next fifty years, including Through Gates of Splendor, Shadow of the Almighty and The Savage, My Kinsmen.

In 1969 Elisabeth married Addison Leitch, a professor of theology at Gordon Conwell Seminary. He died of cancer in 1973. After his death, she married yet again in 1977 to a hospital chaplain named Lars Glen, a former lodger at the rented room at her home. That marriage lasted until her death at 88 in June, 2015.

Jim and Elisabeth Elliot have stepped “Through Gates of Splendor” into their reward, yet their words and influence remain six decades later. Elisabeth is a particular inspiration to me, especially how she handled suffering at multiple points in her life, first through the high risks of ministry in Ecuador and the wrenching experience of seeing cancer take her second spouse within only four years. Her last decade was a constant battle with dementia, a condition that she endured with godly acceptance as she had previously done with the passing of her husbands.

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ประวัติศาสตร์คริสตจักรตั้งแต่ปี 1500

ข้างล่างนี้ท่านจะพบเส้นทางเดินผ่านประวัติศาสตร์คริสตจักรสากลตั้งแต่ปี 1500 ถึงปัจจุบัน.  ผมคาดหวังว่าจะเป็นพระพรสำหรับทุกคนที่สนใจเรื่องประวัติศาสตร์และอยากเรียนรู้จากอดีตเพื่อสร้างอนาคตที่ดี (ท่านใดที่สนใจประวัติศาสตร์คริสตจักรสากลก่อนปี 1500 กรุณาคลิกที่นี้)

จงกดลูกสรที่แป้งพิมพ์ดีดเพื่อก้าวนห้าหรือย้อนหลัง  แล้วกดปุ่ม List เพื่อจะดูรายการเหตุการณ์

 

 

 

 

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ประวัติศาสตร์คริสตจักรก่อนถึงปี 1500

ข้างล่างนี้ท่านจะพบเส้นทางเดินผ่านประวัติศาสตร์คริสตจักรสากลตั้งแต่สมัยพระเยซูนจถึงปี 1500.  ผมคาดหวังว่าจะเป็นพระพรสำหรับทุกคนที่สนใจเรื่องประวัติศาสตร์และอยากเรียนรู้จากอดีตเพื่อสร้างอนาคตที่ดี (ท่านใดที่สนใจประวัติศาสตร์คริสตจักรสากลตั้งแต่ปี 1500 กรุณาคลิกที่นี้)

 

จงกดลูกสรที่แป้งพิมพ์ดีดเพื่อก้าวนห้าหรือย้อนหลัง  แล้วกดปุ่ม List เพื่อจะดูรายการเหตุการ  ในตอนนี้อาจมีการสกดผิดหรือการพิมพ์ผิดบ้าง ซึ่งผมต้องการขอโทษด้วย

 

 

 

 ดูขนาดเต็ม คลิกที่นี้ Click Here to View English Version 

 
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Book Review: "A History of Thailand" by Chris Baker and Pasuk Phongpaichit

Book Review: "A History of Thailand" by Chris Baker and Pasuk Phongpaichit

Chris Baker and Pasuk Phongpaichit, A History of Thailand, third ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014), Kindle Edition.

Years ago, I read David Wyatt's "Thailand: A Short History" but it was a bit too dry and not too short. I nearly gave up as he went on and on reconstructing the pre-history of Thailand. But Chris Baker and Pasuk Phongpaichit's “A History of Thailand” has been a completely different experience. The authors have written a briskly moving narrative that gives you the big picture, highlighting the important people and events in the development of the country without getting bogged down in the details. The first chapter (Before Bangkok) takes you through early history to the founding of Bangkok in 1782. In not too many pages, the authors give a helpful picture of the 15-18th century, the empires of Southeast Asia, the old Thai feudal system, and the steps leading up the founding of the Chakri dynasty. And it is the Chakri dynasty and the last 200 years of Thai history that form the bulk of this book.

As the book unfolds however, tracing the political, cultural, and economic development of the country from Rama 1 (1782) to the pre-coup political climate of March 2014, it becomes obviously that writing a history of “Thailand” is problematic. As it were, there was no “Thailand” per se, until the colonial powers forced the kingdom of Siam to define it borders in response to French and British colonial acquisitions in Cambodia, Laos, and Malaysia. In the late 19th century, the kingdom of Siam spread across what is now Central Thailand into Western Cambodia, while the Lao kingdoms and Shan States functioned rather independent of Siam to the north, albeit many of them in a tributary relationship to Siam. The region that constitutes modern day Southern Thailand was also only loosely connected to Bangkok. But as the colonial powers claimed some of these territories and agreed that others belonged to Siam, the government of Siam felt that it was necessary create a sense of unity and nationhood among these different territories and peoples in order to consolidate power and ward off interference from foreign aggression. These reasons, along with the belief that the majority of “Thai” people are passive peasants, led to justifications for a strong state with Bangkok as the center. The strong state was first embodied in the absolute monarchy, but after the revolution of 1932, the strong state re-emerged on-and-off in the form of military dictatorships up through the 1970s and beyond.

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When the Blood of the Martyrs Is Not the Seed of the Church

When the Blood of the Martyrs Is Not the Seed of the Church

When Western Christians hear about the persecution of believers in other parts of the world, their response sometimes comes from behind rose colored glasses that diminish the depth of the tragedy that is playing out on the other side of the globe.

1) The first misperception that occurs is the assumption that those believers who are being persecuted are heroic, and must have much stronger faith than the well-off person reading about their plight on the newest model iPhone.  I suspect that there is an semi-unconscious train of thought that goes something like, “Oh, they are so brave to face this persecution.  I could never face that.  But since they are so brave and spiritual, they’ll be fine despite the persecution.”  Of course, there are brave and heroic believers who stand up for Christ and the Gospel in many parts of the world.  Praise God for their bold testimony!  But there are also many normal believers, immature Christians, and nominal church goers who bear the brunt of anti-Christian violence.  They don't all stand up to the threats very well.  Their story flashes across global media like a shooting star and then disappears, but they still struggle and live in fear and anxiety long after you’ve clicked “Share.”  And sometimes the intimidation works.  They stay silent about their faith, compromise, or flee.   And that brings me to my second point.

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Why Villages Matter: How the Church Died in North Africa, but Survived in Egypt

Why Villages Matter: How the Church Died in North Africa, but Survived in Egypt

In recent years, it has become popular among evangelicals (especially Reformed evangelicals) to emphasize church planting in big cities.  Numerous books, articles, and blog posts have put forth the call to plant churches in the major urban centers of the world,under the belief that what happens in the city will eventually influence the rest of society.  In many ways, the renewed emphasis on cities is a good thing.  We should not neglect the cities, and we should seek to influence the influencers of society in hopes of having a broader impact upon society at large.  

However, with all the rhetorical emphasis on the city, some people have begun wonder, “Hey, what about the countryside?  What about small towns and villages?  Don’t rural areas matter too?”  Although I don’t think we could find anyone who’d say that rural areas don’t matter, the unspoken message is that the countryside matters less.  Way less. Rural areas are not strategic.  They are not centers of influence. What happens in the countryside stays in the countryside.  In sum, small towns and villages are not strategic in terms of impacting a society for the Gospel.  Or are they?

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Timeline: Thai Church History in Global Context

Timeline: Thai Church History in Global Context
อ่านบทความนี้เป็นภาษาไทย

Embedded below is the English version of a timeline of "Thai Church History in Global Context."  The Thai version was developed as a study aid for my students at Bangkok Bible Seminary, and it is my hope that the English version will be useful for my fellow Thailand missionaries and interested Christians worldwide.

Click on each frame of the timeline (or use your left and right arrow buttons) to advance to the next frame or use the scroll bar on the bottom to travel back and forth through time.  In the top right corner you also have the option to view as a chart (default) or as a list (vertical listing of events).

Click Here to View Full Size

 

 

  Download Timeline (text only) .doc  .pdf The text of this timeline is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Brief Survey of Thai Church History (Audio Lecture)

Brief Survey of Thai Church History (Audio Lecture)

I recently took about 20 hours of lecture notes on Thai church history and condensed them into about 1.5 hours for a session on Thai church history at my mission organization's annual conference.  Embedded below you will find an audio version of this very brief overview of Thai church history which will give you a big picture view of the development of Protestant Christianity in Thailand. 

My lecture here is not as polished or fluid as I would like, but a number of listeners gave me positive feedback so I decided to post it for those who would like a quick overview of Thai church history in a short period of time. (Please excuse the fact that the recording starts abruptly and there is no mention early Roman Catholic mission work in Thailand - I forgot to hit the record button until 15 minutes after I began talking)

If you do not see an embedded audio player and/or download link above, you can click here for direct access to the audio file.

For more on Thai church history, please see my website www.thaichurchhistory.com

Towards Contextualized Creeds

Towards Contextualized Creeds
The following article has been republished with permission from Larry Dinkins and the International Journal of Frontier Missiology.   DOWNLOAD PDF - "Towards Contextualized Creeds" by Larry Dinkins 

One of the first things our supervisor instructed us to do as church planters in Central Thailand was to glue a card with the Apostles’ Creed into the cover of every hymnal. Every Sunday we would have our small congregation of mainly leprosy believers memorize the creed and recite it in unison. Our congregation had no real appreciation of the historic development and impact of this creed, but as preferred oral learners in a group culture, they enjoyed saying the creed out loud together and in the process gained a major dose of scriptural truth. Ancient statements of faith, like the Apostles’ Creed, have been translated and used for centuries in a variety of cultures. Much ink has been spilt analyzing the contribution and content of the historic creeds, but less has been said about how to contextualize them for non-western contexts. To contextualize a creed, one must be aware of the nature of creeds historically as well as the benefits and potential pitfalls inherent in the development process.

The Value and Dangers of Creeds 

Philip Schaff in his massive three-volume work on Creeds states, “Confessions, in due subordination to the bible, are of great value and use. They are summaries of the doctrines of the Bible, aids to its sound understanding, bonds of union among their professors, public standards and guards against false doctrine and practice.”[i] G. W. Bromiley notes the benefits, but also highlights the dangers of creedal statements:

The dangers of creed making are obvious. Creeds can become formal, complex, and abstract. They can be almost illimitably expanded.  They can be superimposed on Scripture.  Properly handled, however, they facilitate public confession, form a succinct basis for teaching, safeguard pure doctrine, and constitute an appropriate focus for the church’s fellowship in faith.[ii]

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[Video] Tracing 175 Years of Thai Protestantism

[Video] Tracing 175 Years of Thai Protestantism

The short 20 minute video that you'll find below is a good overview of the birth and history of Christianity in Thailand.  It was prepared for the 2003 celebration of 175 years of Protestant Christianity in Thailand, counting from 1828 when Karl Gutzlaff and Jacob Tomlin arrived as the first two Protestant missionaries.

There is also a Thai-language book that goes along with the video, called "๑๗๕ ปี พันธกิจคริสต์ศาสนาโปรเตสแตนต์ในประเทศไทย, ค.ศ. ๑๘๒๘-๒๐๐๓" (175 Years of Protestant Christian Ministry in Thailand, 1828-2003).  The book is currently out of print but should be able to be found in libraries of seminaries and bible colleges in Thailand.

If you don't see a video above, click here to watch it on Youtube.

 

คลิกที่นี้เพื่อดูวีดีโอนี้เป็นภาคภาษาไทย

 

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Church History Timeline to 1500

Church History Timeline to 1500

 One my goals in teaching church history at Bangkok Bible Seminary is to develop resources to help make church history accessible for my students.  There are a small number of church history book available in Thai, but my students were asking for handouts summarizing what I was teaching in the classroom.  Eventually, I will find time to make those handouts but in the meantime, I have made an interactive church history timeline to help them review what we've been learning.

 

In this blog post, I have embedded the English version of the timeline that I put together.  However, the vast majority of my students don't speak English well enough to use English language study resources, so this English version was the intermediary step to producing a Thai version.  If you are a Thai speaker (or just want to see what the Thai version looks like), please click here to view the Thai version of the timeline.

 

This timeline only goes up to the year 1500 but I plan on producing two more timelines for, 1) church history from 1500 to the present, and 2) Thai church history (or, the history of the church in Thailand)

 

Click on each frame of the timeline (or use your left and right arrow buttons) to advance to the next frame or use the scroll bar on the bottom to travel back and forth through time.  In the top right corner you also have the option to view as a chart (default) or as a list (vertical listing of events).

 

 

 Click Here for Full Size (English Version) คลิกที่นี้เพื่อดูเวอร์ชั่นภาษาไทย Click Here for Thai Version

 

 

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Church History Timeline From 1500

Church History Timeline From 1500

One my goals in teaching church history at Bangkok Bible Seminary is to develop resources to help make church history accessible for my students.  There are a small number of church history book available in Thai, but my students were asking for handouts summarizing what I was teaching in the classroom.  Eventually, I will find time to make those handouts but in the meantime, I have made some interactive church history timelines to help them review what we've been learning.  

 

Earlier this year, I created a church history timeline to 1500 (Thai & English) to help my students prepare for their mid-term exam.  And now that the end of the school term is upon us, I have created another church history timeline from 1500 to the present (to help my students prepare for the final exam, of course). 

 

Embedded below is the English version, but if you are a Thai speaker (or just want to see what the Thai version looks like), please click here to view the Thai version of the timeline. 

 

Click on each frame of the timeline (or use your left and right arrow buttons) to advance to the next frame or use the scroll bar on the bottom to travel back and forth through time.  In the top right corner you also have the option to view as a chart (default) or as a list (vertical listing of events).

 

 

 

 Click Here for Full Size (English Version) คลิกที่นี้เพื่อดูเวอร์ชั่นภาษาไทย Click Here for Thai Version

 

 

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Still Standing! 19th Century Missionary House in Phrae, Thailand

Still Standing!  19th Century Missionary House in Phrae, Thailand

While searching for something else, I recently stumbled across a Thai newspaper article announcing the discovery of a 19th century wooden house in Phrae, Thailand, that was the original residence of the first missionaries who arrived there in the 1890s.  The Thai headline expressed my feelings exactly: "Shock!  Wooden Missionary House in Phrae - over 100 years old!"  And the house is in good shape too!  I was totally fascinated by the modern photos of the type of house that I had only previously seen in small, grainy, black-and-white photos in Thai church history books and missionary biographies.   I thought for sure that such residences were long gone but to find one still standing is simply fantastic.  I was immediately stuck that the design of this house is extremely similar to old pictures I’ve seen of those in Chiang Mai and Petchburi.  Here is the lead photo from the newspaper article showing the house in Phrae.  The whole article (in Thai) with more photos can be found here.

 

 

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Northerners and Southerners in Thailand during the American Civil War

Northerners and Southerners in Thailand during the American Civil War

I recently came across the curious and amazing story of two American missionary couples who worked together in Thailand during the period of the American Civil War (1861-1865)... despite the fact that they supported opposing sides.  Somehow, through the grace of God, the tragic events of their homeland did not destroy their relationship and the fragile work of planting a new church together on the other side of the globe. 

 

Rev. J.A. Eakin, writing in 1928, shares their story:“The terrible time of the American Civil War was keenly felt by that little band of missionaries, located half-a-world away from the scenes or conflict. Mr. McGilvary was from North Carolina and sympathized ardently with the South; Mr. and Mrs. McFarland were from western Pennsylvania and their feelings were just as strongly enlisted on the side of the North. Mail came to them once a month; then they shut themselves up in their homes with letters and periodicals, eagerly reading the news or the war. But when they met afterward they never dared speak of those things which so filled their hearts and minds. On one occasion, after a day spent in such reading, Mr. McGilvary went over to call on the McFarlands. They talked about the Church; they talked about the work; but there were long pauses when they were thinking of a very different subject which must not even be mentioned. One such pause was broken by Mr. McGilvary asking, "Mr. McFarland, have you noticed in the papers what an enourmous national debt England has?" That was a safe topic. Surely in the annals of foreign mission life and work, there is not a more tremendous example of Christian forbearance and self-repression. Those people lived and labored together in most intimate contact all through the war without one word of friction.”J.A. Eakin, “The Narrative of Petchaburi Station,” in George McFarland, ed. “Historical Sketch of Protestant Missions in Siam 1828-1928,” (White Lotus Press: Bangkok, 1999), p.94.

 

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